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Water Pollution-Chlorination of water

Why is the chlorination of water done before drinking?

1. Chlorine is a strong oxidizing agent and a very effective disinfectant. Chlorination of water is done by adding chlorine to water to kill the toxic microbes and bacteria in the water. This process also avoids getting affected by waterborne diseases like typhoid, dysentery, and cholera. Water chlorination began on a permanent basis in 1905 in Lincoln, England.

2.Micro-organisms can be found in water from rivers, lakes and even ground water. Some of these micro-organisms are harmful and can cause alot of diseases. Different types of disinfectant methods are used for the purification of water. One of the most common method is chlorination.
It is the method of adding chlorine to drinking water to disinfect it and kill germs. Chlorination can be done at any point or time of the water treatment process. However, the amount of chlorine that is required for the disinfection of water depends upon the impurities in the water that needs to be treated.

Purifying Water During an Emergency

The treatments described below work only to remove bacteria or viruses from water. If you suspect the water is unsafe because of chemicals, oils, poisonous substances, sewage or other contaminants, do not drink the water. Don’t drink water that is dark colored, has an odor or contains solid materials.

Storing water safely

The best source of drinking water during an emergency is water you have stored with your emergency supplies.

  • Store one gallon of water per person per day–enough for at least three days.
  • Store-bought, factory-sealed bottled water is best. Check for an expiration date and replace as needed.
  • If you choose to fill your own water containers:
    • Collect the water from a safe supply.
    • Store water in thoroughly washed plastic containers such as soft drink bottles. You can also purchase food-grade plastic buckets or drums.
    • Seal water containers tightly, label with date, and store in a cool, dark place.
    • Replace water every six months.
    • Never reuse a container that held toxic substances such as pesticides, chemicals or oil.

Purifying by boiling

If your tap water is unsafe, boiling is the best method to kill disease-causing organisms.

If tap water is unavailable, the following may be considered as potential water sources. Water taken from these sources should be boiled before drinking.

  • Rainwater
  • Lakes
  • Rivers and streams
  • Natural springs
  • Ponds

Caution: Many chemical pollutants will not be removed by boiling.

Cloudy water should be filtered before boiling. Filter cloudy water using coffee filters, paper towels, cheesecloth or a cotton plug in a funnel.

  • Bring the water to a rolling boil for at least one full minute.
  • Let the water cool before drinking.
  • Add two drops of household bleach per gallon to maintain water quality while in storage.

Purifying by adding liquid chlorine bleach

  • Treat water by adding liquid household bleach, such as Clorox or Purex.
  • Household bleach is typically between 5.25 percent and 8.25 percent chlorine. Read the label.
  • Avoid using bleaches that contain perfumes, dyes and other additives. Be sure to read the label.
  • Cloudy water should be filtered before adding bleach.
  • Place the water in a clean container. Add the amount of bleach according to the table below.
  • Mix thoroughly and let stand for at least 60 minutes before drinking.

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